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FA2 & SmartPy - Digital Assets on Tezos#

This tutorial shows how to interact with the “FA2-SmartPy” implementation of the FA2 standard on some common use-cases. The first part uses tezos-client commands to operate basic transfers and queries. The second part goes further: it uses the fatoo command line interface to do batched-transfers and use the “operator” mechanism to delegate transfer rights.

Basic Usage With tezos-client#

This assumes you have tezos-client properly set up to talk to Carthagenet or to a “full” sandbox (i.e. with bakers).

This part requires 4 accounts with a few ꜩ imported into tezos-client, as administrator, originator, alice and bob.

In the case of the sandbox tutorial we use alice also as originator and administrator:

 $ tezos-client import secret key alice \                unencrypted:edsk3QoqBuvdamxouPhin7swCvkQNgq4jP5KZPbwWNnwdZpSpJiEbq \                --force   tezos-client import secret key originator \                unencrypted:edsk3QoqBuvdamxouPhin7swCvkQNgq4jP5KZPbwWNnwdZpSpJiEbq \                --force   tezos-client import secret key administrator \                unencrypted:edsk3QoqBuvdamxouPhin7swCvkQNgq4jP5KZPbwWNnwdZpSpJiEbq \                --force   tezos-client import secret key bob \                unencrypted:edsk3RFfvaFaxbHx8BMtEW1rKQcPtDML3LXjNqMNLCzC3wLC1bWbAt \                --force

Get The Michelson Code#

FA2-SmartPy uses SmartPy's meta-programming facilities to provide more than one Michelson contract, a.k.a. “builds.”. A few of the builds are available at https://gitlab.com/smondet/fa2-smartpy/-/tree/master/michelson, see below for a description of the various builds.

Let's download the “default” one:

 $ wget -O fa2_default.tz \        'https://gitlab.com/smondet/fa2-smartpy/-/raw/4acac092/michelson/20200910-203659+0000_5060996_contract.tz'

Origination#

Origination works like for any contract, we need the above code, a few ꜩ, and a michelson expression to initialize the storage. In our case, it should look like:

(Pair   (Pair "" (Pair of-tokens> ))   (Pair (Pair Unit )         (Pair  )))

It is expected that is the cardinal of the map, and that only “known” tokens are used in the big-map. To maintain all invariants properly, it is recommended to initialize the storage empty, and use the %mint entrypoint to fill the contract.

Let's originate such an unpaused empty contract while setting the administrator address:

 $ tezos-client originate contract myfa2 \                transferring 0 from originator \                running fa2_default.tz \                --init '(Pair (Pair "tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb" (Pair 0 {})) (Pair (Pair Unit {}) (Pair False {})))' \                --burn-cap 10 \                --force --no-print-source┃ Node is bootstrapped.┃ Estimated gas: 135041 units (will add 100 for safety)┃ Estimated storage: 4620 bytes added (will add 20 for safety)┃ Operation successfully injected in the node.┃ Operation hash is 'opa4ZVgJGkXzeRypcnqso1CF8LrgVEYq4R2QwGkFT2kzw2L9Tqp'┃ Waiting for the operation to be included...┃ Operation found in block: BM2FVXcXeYxBaDPkt1X2etZrnkJTG19pazm6wd5FVCrxGm6tS2o (pass: 3, offset: 0)┃ ...┃           tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb ... -ꜩ0.257┃ New contract KT1FQrHRqqqZ23Md9Ec5KJ3WK66fNxi9izZJ originated.┃ The operation has only been included 0 blocks ago.┃ We recommend to wait more.┃ Use command┃   tezos-client wait for opa4ZVgJGkXzeRypcnqso1CF8LrgVEYq4R2QwGkFT2kzw2L9Tqp to be included --confirmations 30 --branch BLKYS2BuTtAp6Qb6Uu5K4JPNvGhJecHmqrtiNNQWb29fsf4JbhS┃ and/or an external block explorer.┃ Contract memorized as myfa2.

Mint#

Here we want to make a transfer “as” the administrator set in the previous section.

The minting entry-point is not standardized in the FA2 specification, for fa2-smartpy it should look like this:

(Pair (Pair "" ) (Pair "" ))

The default build assumes that token-IDs are consecutive natural numbers (0, 1, 2, …), if because of some particular constraint the user requires arbitrary token-IDs there is a build option in FA2-SmartPy to generate such a contract (see documentation).

For instance, let's, as administrator, mint 100 TK0 tokens to alice:

 $ tezos-client transfer 0 from administrator to myfa2 \                --entrypoint mint \                --arg '(Pair (Pair "tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb" 100) (Pair "TK0" 0))' \                --burn-cap 3┃ Node is bootstrapped.┃ Estimated gas: 117731 units (will add 100 for safety)┃ Estimated storage: 163 bytes added (will add 20 for safety)┃ Operation successfully injected in the node.┃ Operation hash is 'ooL9T4cK1RyYz4HxjfyixPW3n5iJf2hX6G47iQToa7sDTb6fjHr'┃ Waiting for the operation to be included...┃ Operation found in block: BMGWJeRyTtUL2Pi9xgAi3MU7kkgMCr4pUeYALaVhQAi4uJS37ae (pass: 3, offset: 0)┃ ...┃       Consumed gas: 117731┃       Balance updates:┃         tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb ... -ꜩ0.163┃ The operation has only been included 0 blocks ago.┃ We recommend to wait more.┃ Use command┃   tezos-client wait for ooL9T4cK1RyYz4HxjfyixPW3n5iJf2hX6G47iQToa7sDTb6fjHr to be included --confirmations 30 --branch BM2FVXcXeYxBaDPkt1X2etZrnkJTG19pazm6wd5FVCrxGm6tS2o┃ and/or an external block explorer.

Transfer#

The transfer entry-point in FA2 is “batched” at two levels i.e. one contract call contains a list of transfer elements, each transfer element is a “from-address” and a list of outgoing transactions:

{  Pair "" {Pair "" (Pair  )} ;  Pair "" {Pair "" (Pair  ) ; Pair "" (Pair  )} ;  ...}

Here we, as alice, transfer 5 of our 100 TK0 to bob:

 $ tezos-client transfer 0 from alice to myfa2 \                --entrypoint transfer \                --arg '{ Pair "tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb" {Pair "tz1aSkwEot3L2kmUvcoxzjMomb9mvBNuzFK6" (Pair 0 5)} }' \                --burn-cap 3┃ Node is bootstrapped.┃ Estimated gas: 119800 units (will add 100 for safety)┃ Estimated storage: 67 bytes added (will add 20 for safety)┃ Operation successfully injected in the node.┃ Operation hash is 'opU6fKDzso3fE3x61GCPGbgu5Bqg6wrXm9w1wxM3MeyVkc242gQ'┃ Waiting for the operation to be included...┃ Operation found in block: BM2yNL1kjRJvrSeuzX2P6iid4f5Fx7JBjn2K2MYYsYTF3eFcVQ4 (pass: 3, offset: 0)┃ This sequence of operations was run:┃ ...┃       Consumed gas: 119800┃       Balance updates:┃         tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb ... -ꜩ0.067┃ The operation has only been included 0 blocks ago.┃ We recommend to wait more.┃ Use command┃   tezos-client wait for opU6fKDzso3fE3x61GCPGbgu5Bqg6wrXm9w1wxM3MeyVkc242gQ to be included --confirmations 30 --branch BMGWJeRyTtUL2Pi9xgAi3MU7kkgMCr4pUeYALaVhQAi4uJS37ae┃ and/or an external block explorer.

Get Balance Off-Chain#

As an example of interaction with big-maps in the contract's storage using Michelson and tezos-client, here we obtain alice's balance of TK0 tokens.

We need a script which takes the contract's storage type as parameter (literally copy-pasted), and uses Michelson to extract the value in the %ledger big-map; in this case we just display it with the FAILWITH instruction, but one could do much more, including putting in storage (left as exercise for the reader ☺). Let's save it as get-balance.tz:

parameter    (pair (pair (address %administrator)                (pair (nat %all_tokens) (big_map %ledger (pair address nat) nat)))          (pair (pair (unit %version_20200910_tzip_93e5415e_contract)                      (big_map %operators                         (pair (address %owner) (pair (address %operator) (nat %token_id)))                         unit))                (pair (bool %paused)                      (big_map %tokens                         nat                         (pair (nat %token_id)                               (pair (string %symbol)                                     (pair (string %name) (pair (nat %decimals) (map %extras string string))))))))) ;storage unit;code {    CAR ; # Get parameter    CAR ; # Get the pair (admin , _)    CDR ; # Get the pair (all_token, ledger)    CDR ; # Get %ledger    PUSH (pair address nat) (Pair "tz1VSUr8wwNhLAzempoch5d6hLRiTh8Cjcjb" 0);    GET ; # Get the value in the ledger at the above key    FAILWITH };

In this case, we expect the tezos-client command to fail, since we want to read the error message:

 $ tezos-client run script get-balance.tz on storage Unit \                and input \                "$(tezos-client get contract storage for myfa2)"‖ ...‖   22:     GET ; ‖   23:     FAILWITH‖   24:  };‖ At line 23 characters 4 to 12,‖ script reached FAILWITH instruction‖ with (Some 95)‖ Fatal error:‖   error running script

We can clearly see in the error value (passed to FAILWITH) that alice's balance is 95 TK0 (100 minted minus 5 transferred to bob).

The fatoo Application#

Obtain and Setup Client#

In this section we use the fatoo command line interface to some builds of FA2-SmartPy. You need fatoo installed in your $PATH or you may use Docker:

 $ fatoo --version      docker run -it --rm --entrypoint fatoo registry.gitlab.com/smondet/fa2-smartpy:4acac092-run --version

The fatoo application has many commands, see fatoo [subcommand] --help. At the same time, it is work-in-progress, so feel free to submit issues and feature requests in the main repository.

Two environment variables can be used to configure

  • fatoo_root_path: logs, outputs
  • fatoo_client: the more important one, it is an URI describing how to configure tezos-client and talk to the node:

See command fatoo show-client-uri-documentation:

The URI follows the usual pattern:://:/?:

  • can be http or http (--tls option);
  • : defines the connection to the node;
  • is the private-key (URI) for the “funder” account which is used to pay for gas and storage.

Available are:

  • bake=true: use the funder account to also bake blocks after injecting operations (useful for “manual” sandboxes);
  • wait=: set the --wait option of tezos-client (how many blocks to wait after an operation is injected);
  • command=: use an alternative command for tezos-client.

See for instance the current default: http://:2020/unencrypted:edsk3S7mCwuuMVS21jsYTczxBU4tgTbQp98J3YmTGcstuUxsrZxKYd?bake=true.

Assuming we are using the [sandbox](https://assets.tqtezos.com/docs/setup/2-sandbox\) setup, we can configure the client using `alice`'s private key as follows:

export fatoo_client='http://:20000/unencrypted:edsk3QoqBuvdamxouPhin7swCvkQNgq4jP5KZPbwWNnwdZpSpJiEbq?wait=0'


alias fatoo='docker run -it -u "$UID" --network host -v "$PWD:/work" -w /work --rm -e fatoo_client="http://:20000/unencrypted:edsk3QoqBuvdamxouPhin7swCvkQNgq4jP5KZPbwWNnwdZpSpJiEbq?wait=0" --entrypoint fatoo registry.gitlab.com/smondet/fa2-smartpy:4acac092-run'

The application has a client subcommand which just calls tezos-client properly, one may test their setup with:

 $ fatoo client bootstrapped┃ Node is bootstrapped.

Setup Accounts#

Here we create four key-pairs from mnemonic seeds, to be used in the following sections:

 $ fatoo account-of-seed \         "the-only-administrator-of-the-contract" \         --output admin.csv   fatoo account-of-seed \         "the-0th-aka-first-owner" \         --output owner0.csv   fatoo account-of-seed \         "ready-owner-one" \         --output owner1.csv   fatoo account-of-seed \         "this-is-a-potential-token-owner-too" \         --output owner2.csv

The resulting CSVs are in the same format as with flextesa, they contain:,,, see for instance:

 $ echo "Public key hash: $(cut -d, -f 3 admin.csv)"   echo "Secret key: $(cut -d, -f 4 admin.csv)"┃ Public key hash: tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe┃ Secret key: unencrypted:edsk3ZAm4BwNkG2uUmCcA64BadPWuwNt16zZisnfcQEuvyStaBa6oG

Let's name all of these:

 $ export admin_pkh="$(cut -d, -f 3 admin.csv)"   export admin_sk="$(cut -d, -f 4 admin.csv)"   export owner0_pkh="$(cut -d, -f 3 owner0.csv)"   export owner0_sk="$(cut -d, -f 4 owner0.csv)"   export owner1_pkh="$(cut -d, -f 3 owner1.csv)"   export owner1_sk="$(cut -d, -f 4 owner1.csv)"   export owner2_pkh="$(cut -d, -f 3 owner2.csv)"   export owner2_sk="$(cut -d, -f 4 owner2.csv)"

Originate#

The application contains the code for a few variants of the contract:

 $ fatoo list-contract-variants \         --details description --format markdown┃ * `contract`: The default.┃ * `dbg_contract`: The default in debug mode.┃ * `baby_contract`: The default in Babylon mode.┃ * `nolay_contract`: The default without right-combs.┃ * `mutran_contract`: The default with mutez transfer entry-point.┃ * `tokset_contract`: The default with non-consecutive token-IDs.┃ * `perdesc_noops_contract`: The default without operators and with permissions-descriptor.┃ * `perdesc_noops_dbg_contract`: The perdesc_noops_contract but in debug mode.┃ * `single_contract`: The default for single-asset.┃ * `single_mutran_contract`: The single-asset with mutez transfer entry-point.┃ * `nft_mutran_contract`: The default in NFT mode with mutez transfer entry-point.┃ * `lzep_contract`: The default with lazy-entry-points flag.┃ * `lzepm_contract`: The default with lazy-entry-points-multiple flag.┃ * `lzep_mutran_contract`: The default with mutez-transfer and lazy-entry-points flag.┃ * `lzepm_mutran_contract`: The default with mutez-transfer and lazy-entry-points-multiple flag.

One can dump the Michelson code into a file (see fatoo get-code --help), but there is no need since one can directly originate contracts from the application. Let's originate mutran_contract, the full blown FA2 implementation with an extra entry-point which allows the administrator to transfer funds which may potentially end-up in the contract's balance.

 $ fatoo originate mutran_contract \         --administrator "${admin_pkh}" \         --output-address kt1_mutran_contract.txt
‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Originations:‖     * Success: mutran_contract (The default with mutez transfer entry-point)‖       -> KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w

The command has saved the contract address in the file:

 $ cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt┃ KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w

And we can already display the state of the contract (storage):

 $ fatoo show-storage "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Contract: KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w‖     Balance: 0 mutez‖     Administrator: "tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe"‖     Status: Ready‖     Tokens-big-map: 26‖     Ledger-big-map: 24‖     Operators-big-map: 25‖     All-Tokens: None‖     Known-Owners-and-Operators: None

Mint and Multi-Transfer#

In order to mint tokens, the administrator needs to be able to call the contract on chain, for this we need to transfer at least a few μꜩ to that address. One can use tezos-client but fatoo has shortcut command to transfer from the configured “funding” account (amounts are in mutez):

 $ fatoo fund-address \         "${admin_pkh}" \         10_000_000‖ [FA2->Info]: Balance for tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe is now‖   4058182245 mutez.

Note that for now owner0 does not exist on chain, we're still minting tokens to them:

 $ fatoo call-mint --token-id 0 --token-symbol TQ0 \         "${owner0_pkh}" 1_000_000 \         --source "${admin_sk}" \         --address "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"┃ (Pair (Pair "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS" 1000000) (Pair "TQ0" 0))

Let's add another token TQ1 still minting some to owner0:

 $ fatoo call-mint --token-id 1 --token-symbol TQ1 \         "${owner0_pkh}" 2_000 \         --source "${admin_sk}" \         --address "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"┃ (Pair (Pair "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS" 2000) (Pair "TQ1" 1))

Let's see the storage; we see the new tokens TQ0 and TQ1 and, since we provide a “known token owner” on the command-line, we can see their balances:

 $ fatoo show-storage "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner0.csv)"‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Contract: KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w‖     Balance: 0 mutez‖     Administrator: "tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe"‖     Status: Ready‖     Tokens-big-map: 26‖     Ledger-big-map: 24‖     Operators-big-map: 25‖     All-Tokens: 0 = TQ0.‖                 1 = TQ1.‖     Known-Owners-and-Operators:‖       * Owner: "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS" [0 ops]‖         - Balance: 1000000 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 2000 TQ1(1)

Now let's get owner0 to do a batch-transfer. First, we need to feed some gas to that address:

 $ fatoo fund-address \         "${owner0_pkh}" \         1_000_000‖ [FA2->Info]: Balance for tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS is now 4335411‖   mutez.

Then, since the token-owner can do self-transfer we use owner1's secret-key to transfer TQ0s and TQ1s to owner1 and owner2:

 $ fatoo call-transfer \         "from:${owner0_pkh} to:${owner1_pkh} amount: 10 token: 0" \         "from:${owner0_pkh} to:${owner1_pkh} amount: 100 token: 1" \         "from:${owner0_pkh} to:${owner2_pkh} amount: 10 token: 1" \         --source "${owner0_sk}" \         --address "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"┃ { Pair "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS" { Pair "tz1YYrxf529d3EYzEv5TnsiTpRCzFFB87dAS" (Pair 0 10) ; Pair "tz1YYrxf529d3EYzEv5TnsiTpRCzFFB87dAS" (Pair 1 100) ; Pair "tz1TyFYCuKrQ7A3yB4AvpoPRLacb3J6iQB9V" (Pair 1 10)}}

We can then observe the resulting state:

 $ fatoo show-storage "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner0.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner1.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner2.csv)"‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Contract: KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w‖     Balance: 0 mutez‖     Administrator: "tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe"‖     Status: Ready‖     Tokens-big-map: 26‖     Ledger-big-map: 24‖     Operators-big-map: 25‖     All-Tokens: 0 = TQ0.‖                 1 = TQ1.‖     Known-Owners-and-Operators:‖       * Owner: "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS" [0 ops]‖         - Balance: 999990 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 1890 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1YYrxf529d3EYzEv5TnsiTpRCzFFB87dAS" [0 ops]‖         - Balance: 10 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 100 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1TyFYCuKrQ7A3yB4AvpoPRLacb3J6iQB9V" [0 ops]‖         - Balance: 10 TQ1(1)

Using Operators#

Let's create an operator key-pair:

 $ fatoo account-of-seed \         "youve-been-operated-ill-be-back" \         --output operator.csv   export operator_pkh="$(cut -d, -f 3 operator.csv)"   export operator_sk="$(cut -d, -f 4 operator.csv)"

We will now get all the owners to delegate all their tokens to “operator,” see also the command fatoo call-update-operators --help:

 $ fatoo call-update-operators \         "add@ operator: ${operator_pkh} owner: ${owner0_pkh} token: 0" \         "add@ operator: ${operator_pkh} owner: ${owner0_pkh} token: 1" \         --source "${owner0_sk}" \         --address "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"   fatoo fund-address \         "${owner1_pkh}" \         1_000_000   fatoo call-update-operators \         "add@ operator: ${operator_pkh} owner: ${owner1_pkh} token: 0" \         "add@ operator: ${operator_pkh} owner: ${owner1_pkh} token: 1" \         --source "${owner1_sk}" \         --address "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"   fatoo fund-address \         "${owner2_pkh}" \         1_000_000   fatoo call-update-operators \         "add@ operator: ${operator_pkh} owner: ${owner2_pkh} token: 0" \         "add@ operator: ${operator_pkh} owner: ${owner2_pkh} token: 1" \         --source "${owner2_sk}" \         --address "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"

We see that now, the same operator is present in every account:

 $ fatoo show-storage "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner0.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner1.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner2.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 operator.csv)"‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Contract: KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w‖     Balance: 0 mutez‖     Administrator: "tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe"‖     Status: Ready‖     Tokens-big-map: 26‖     Ledger-big-map: 24‖     Operators-big-map: 25‖     All-Tokens: 0 = TQ0.‖                 1 = TQ1.‖     Known-Owners-and-Operators:‖       * Owner: "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS"‖         - Operator: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" -> [0, 1]‖         - Balance: 999990 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 1890 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1YYrxf529d3EYzEv5TnsiTpRCzFFB87dAS"‖         - Operator: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" -> [0, 1]‖         - Balance: 10 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 100 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1TyFYCuKrQ7A3yB4AvpoPRLacb3J6iQB9V"‖         - Operator: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" -> [0, 1]‖         - Balance: 10 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" [0 ops] [0 toks]

Finally, let's get operator to run a batch-transfer-heist of all the tokens:

 $ fatoo fund-address \         "${operator_pkh}" \         2_000_000_000
‖ [FA2->Info]: Balance for tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85 is now‖   5999358655 mutez.
 $ fatoo call-transfer \         "from:${owner0_pkh} to:${operator_pkh} amount: 999990 token: 0" \         "from:${owner0_pkh} to:${operator_pkh} amount: 1890 token: 1" \         "from:${owner1_pkh} to:${operator_pkh} amount: 10 token: 0" \         "from:${owner1_pkh} to:${operator_pkh} amount: 100 token: 1" \         "from:${owner2_pkh} to:${operator_pkh} amount: 10 token: 1" \         --source "${operator_sk}" \         --address "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"┃ { Pair "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS" { Pair "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" (Pair 0 999990) ; Pair "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" (Pair 1 1890)} ; Pair "tz1YYrxf529d3EYzEv5TnsiTpRCzFFB87dAS" { Pair "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" (Pair 0 10) ; Pair "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" (Pair 1 100)} ; Pair "tz1TyFYCuKrQ7A3yB4AvpoPRLacb3J6iQB9V" { Pair "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" (Pair 1 10)}}

We can then observe the resulting state where all the balances are 0 except for operator who owns the total supply:

 $ fatoo show-storage "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner0.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner1.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 owner2.csv)" \         --known-address "$(cut -d, -f 3 operator.csv)"‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Contract: KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w‖     Balance: 0 mutez‖     Administrator: "tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe"‖     Status: Ready‖     Tokens-big-map: 26‖     Ledger-big-map: 24‖     Operators-big-map: 25‖     All-Tokens: 0 = TQ0.‖                 1 = TQ1.‖     Known-Owners-and-Operators:‖       * Owner: "tz1MUP3sCWTUQRG2Hon7uhRfmuYZ4guEQntS"‖         - Operator: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" -> [0, 1]‖         - Balance: 0 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 0 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1YYrxf529d3EYzEv5TnsiTpRCzFFB87dAS"‖         - Operator: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" -> [0, 1]‖         - Balance: 0 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 0 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1TyFYCuKrQ7A3yB4AvpoPRLacb3J6iQB9V"‖         - Operator: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" -> [0, 1]‖         - Balance: 0 TQ1(1)‖       * Owner: "tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85" [0 ops]‖         - Balance: 1000000 TQ0(0)‖         - Balance: 2000 TQ1(1)

Retrieve The Contract's Balance#

The build of the contract we originated above has an extra entry-point to be able to transfer the balance of the contract, e.g. in case somebody accidentally transfers μꜩ to the contract.

So let's imagine than after the above heist, operator wants to publicly tip/bribe the contract's administrator(s) by going through the contract itself (this may be a convoluted excuse to put XTZ on the contract …). We call the transfer entry-point with an empty list of transfer-items but with a few XTZ as amount:

 $ tezos-client import secret key operator \                "${operator_sk}" --force   tezos-client transfer 1_000 from operator \                to "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)" \                --entrypoint transfer \                --arg '{}' --burn-cap 1┃ ...┃       Balance updates:┃         tz1NkpWhHsBSZHPg2Ljz2hycRiZvcYdcyu85 ... -ꜩ1000┃         KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w ... +ꜩ1000┃ The operation has only been included 0 blocks ago.┃ We recommend to wait more.┃ Use command┃   tezos-client wait for op3KWkf8zB431zBCkK5KYxHKRResGrri95vcQmxFyiJnUtg2S8Z to be included --confirmations 30 --branch BMTLWbbEZGgzNyqtvfdFA4mrhAXAheGUUtmCrTVvBYpP9oZinP5┃ and/or an external block explorer.

We see that fatoo shows a non-zero balance for the contract now:

 $ fatoo show-storage "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Contract: KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w‖     Balance: 1000000000 mutez‖     Administrator: "tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe"‖     Status: Ready‖     Tokens-big-map: 26‖     Ledger-big-map: 24‖     Operators-big-map: 25‖     All-Tokens: 0 = TQ0.‖                 1 = TQ1.‖     Known-Owners-and-Operators: None

Let's make admin retrieve that money for themselves; the entry-point is called mutez_transfer and takes a pair mutez × address:

 $ tezos-client import secret key admin \                "${admin_sk}" --force   tezos-client transfer 0 from admin \                to "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)" \                --entrypoint mutez_transfer \                --arg "Pair 1000000000 \"${admin_pkh}\"" \                --burn-cap 1┃ ...┃         Balance updates:┃           KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w ... -ꜩ1000┃           tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe ... +ꜩ1000┃ The operation has only been included 0 blocks ago.┃ We recommend to wait more.┃ Use command┃   tezos-client wait for oooyQH1YZnngpPaf8KDuVStqQEnq7Y2XD1LRoQTnnWjJ4zZkaeg to be included --confirmations 30 --branch BLu5hPEMU3KBawfcRcDgsbMAoBrXGKT2r555seMpaiN7yhiePPX┃ and/or an external block explorer.

We see that the balance is gone from the KT1:

 $ fatoo show-storage "$(cat kt1_mutran_contract.txt)"‖ [FA2->Info]:‖   Contract: KT1Qmqtc6pYnivEkR1Pedt684XSH4RjmoU6w‖     Balance: 0 mutez‖     Administrator: "tz1ZnxqPNMXyiZLTANYJLJ9ZTBpQ5Qu16BXe"‖     Status: Ready‖     Tokens-big-map: 26‖     Ledger-big-map: 24‖     Operators-big-map: 25‖     All-Tokens: 0 = TQ0.‖                 1 = TQ1.‖     Known-Owners-and-Operators: None

… and see that admin is wealthier:

 $ tezos-client get balance for \                "${admin_pkh}"┃ 5057.816076 ꜩ‖ Warning:  the --addr --port --tls options are now deprecated; use --endpoint instead

Further Reading#

Hopefully this tutorial introduced the FA2-SmartPy implementation of FA2 from a user's perspective. Please provide any feedback using the repository's issues. Further reading includes:

  • the TZIP-12 specification itself;
  • the implementation source code multi_asset.py;
  • the Agora (blog) post introducing the project;
  • 🚧 and more to come … 👷